#
Rafael Angel Araya-Gochez

(nearly-)indistinghishable Fermi-Dirac occupation states of the TAPIR:
# a.k.a. [0,1]

Also parallel to *my conjecture* on the occupation states of 4-space: [dark energy, dark matter]...
*"...because the warrior, having chosen a path, has but one goal:
to traverse its full length." *

from "The Teachings of Don Juan" by Carlos Castaneda.

Welcome to
**Rafael
**'s
web page.
I was a visitor at Caltech's Theoretical Astrophysics group (a.k.a.
TAPIR)
from about 2000 to 2005, working on various *Magnetohydrodynamic* and *General Relativity* problems in Astrophysics.
More recently, I moved to mathematical physics driven primarily by a desire to understand "the dark mysteries of the Universe";
namely, Dark Matter and the cosmological constant problem (a.k.a. Dark Energy).
In a nut-shell, for roughly the last ten years I have aimed to make sense of the mathematical structure of gravity in the modern language of symmetries.
This exercise led me to formulate a theory of gravity at low energies that incorporates the most fundamental symmetries of spacetime in a geometrically intrinsic manner;
literally building Universal space from its core foundational constituents.
The first paper in a series of papers that expound this program is entitled
*''On the Algebraic Structure of Spacetime and 3rd Quantization"*.
In it, I conclude that * a thoroughly organic*

** "quantization of spacetime" **
endows it with matter content upon
incorporation of the symmetries of the Standard Model of particle physics; in particular, a coupling to the Higgs Vacuum Expectation Value--a.k.a.,
**Higgs VEV **
(see the comments from Annals of Physics below).
The framework then naturally leads to a clear prediction for a **Dark Matter particle** in the form of a *non--super-symmetric Majorana spinor..*

Unfortunately, this research has been entirely **unfunded and unsponsored **
(PLEASE e-mail me if interested in either).

In hindsight, given the fundamental building blocks of the standard model–and those of the electro-weak sector in particular–advancing this particular
flavor of spinor as a dark matter candidate seems quite **natural**.
All I did was:

Split the electron in half, mirror the side that talks to the Higgs (left), dispose of the side that doesn't (right), put it back together and VOILA: *
a massive, spin 1/2 particle with identical electro-weak quantum
numbers as the Higgs boson:
***(T**_{3}, Y) = (1/2, -1/2).
As the electromagnetic charge:
**Q = T**_{3} + Y,
is the sum of isospin and weak hyper-charge,
this results in a fermion with zero electric charge...
** Notably, ** throughout our work, the notion arose in top-down fashion from deeming spacetime as a single algebraic structure
under the fundamental premise of building integrable geometric structures over the field of real numbers.
Perhaps more curious is the fact that **Albert Einstein** himself,
along with collaborator **Walther Mayer**, sought a similar unification scheme through the use of so-called
semi-vectors.
These are no more than pairs of left handed or right handed, complex, 2-component Weyl spinors
(Ref. pg. 124 of
"Einstein's Unification").
However,
their efforts failed precisely because they sought electrically charged Dirac spinors
as opposed to the more symmetric, electrically neutral Majorana spinors that emerge by considering spacetime as a *real integrable structure.*
Evidently, none suspected the existence of dark matter back then.
(Disclaimer: I **just became aware** of this remarkable connection on 09/15/2018.)

**The early years: 2000-2005**
Nascent black holes are conjectured to occur at the cores of very massive stars to yield
Gamma-ray Bursts. As
I set out to understand the magnetic nature of accretion flows onto black holes, I was first to carry out a
fully general relativistic analysis
of the problem (in the Cowling approximation). In a subsequent paper, I make the
prediction
that the black hole may be driven into a strongly vibrating mode by heavy clumps of material falling in through the "event horizon" in unison
with the hole's natural oscillating tempo. The energy of such vibrations would radiate away in a very uniform pattern of
Gravitational Waves that may someday be observed by
LIGO.
Remarkably,
**the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics**
was rightfully awarded to the LIGO collaboration for the monumental first detection of gravitational waves; this time from a very powerful collision black holes.
The signal I proposed is much weaker than this first detection but would be very characteristic of the
* quasi-ringing modes* in a hyper-accreting stellar mass black hole.

**More recently: 2008-2017**

After a rendezvous with
**mathematical finance** and **game theory**, I was drawn back to the realm of theoretical physics by the cosmological constant problem.
Standard fare in modern physics posits that *empty space is endowed with quantum energy*.
Although quantum physics and general relativity are fundamentally inconsistent with each other, the mathematical framework invoked by Albert
Einstein to construct the General Theory of Relativity admits an extra
term--a.k.a. the cosmological term--that accounts for the "virtual" energy of the vacuum.
Taken at face value, such conjecture leads to an outlandish dynamical effect: a "speeding up" in the expansion of the fabric of space-time
associated with the growth of vacuum in the Universe.
Astonishingly, today we know that the expansion of the Universe has indeed been accelerating for well over half of the time the Universe's
been around! However, this effect is much too weak to fit into the *standard model of particle physics*;
in particular, it seems to point towards our clear misunderstanding of the physical vacuum!

I am chiefly concerned with fundamentally geometric constructions of [quantum] gravity where a non-vanishing *cosmological constant*
could arise naturally as a by product of interpreting gravity as a ``gauge theory" of an underlying symmetry principle;
e.g., gauging the deSitter group in a quasi--Yang-Mills form.
Yet, **gravity as a gauge theory** has a far richer mathematical structure than a standard Yang-Mills gauge theory.
In particular, the gauge fields of gravity must account for the frames of general relativity in a very peculiar way.
I have taken the faithful representation of the Lorentz group--more technically, its simply connected component--to constitute the core foundational symmetry
of spacetime and combine this with some fancy math to accommodate for gravity's significantly more complex mathematical structure:
algebraic, geometric and topological.
This is the physical content of **graviforms** as postulated in my first paper.
Rather amusingly, I start with general relativity and end up with a curious variant of a quantum field theory *without* explicit coordinate referents!
More technically, my thesis sustains that
*the use of quotient algebras facilitates the most transparent interpretation of spin structure as a manifestly quantum phenomenon.
*
The formal machinery goes by the name of **quantum ring theory** and it facilitates a transparent interpretation of spacetime as a
*quantized derivation algebra with a dual character*.
The generalized frames of general relativity then encompass **spin structure** in the form of *"singular geometric points"*
and this leads to the prediction for a Dark Matter particle at the electro-weak scale;
i.e., with a mass within a factor of 2 from the mass of the Higgs particle.

**Status: ** this paper
was submitted to
**Annals of Physics** on December 8th, 2017.
This is an abridged version of the anonymous reviwer's comments received on January 13th, 2018:

* *

*
This manuscript discusses issues on (or possibly beyond) the boundary of recognized physics. The notion of spacetime is not the standard one and the notion of
quantum theory for spacetime does not appear to be the standard one. Research in this area may well need novel ideas but, in order for those to be of interest to
other scientists, clarity of ideas it of utmost importance...
*
Unfortunately, he/she concluded that that version of the paper did not meet such a criterium.
Reflecting upon this perception led me to realize that indeed the proposed notion of spacetime is highly non-standard:
Roughly speaking, instead of coordinates: * (t, x, y, z)*,
the fundamental ingredient is a hybrid notion of "volume" as a geometrical structure that can be integrated to yield either 4-volume in its standard guise
** or ** a Majorana fermion mass corresponding to the mass of the proposed dark matter particle.

* *

*
***Quantization of spacetime** then corresponds to viewing 4-volume as a two state system: a **ground state** or "normal vacuum"
and an **excited state** corresponding to a dark matter particle.
I completed the formal mathematical implementation of such phenomenology on July 12th, 2018.
Meanwhile, I wrote a complementary paper entitled:
"Something Out of Nowhere: *Dark Matter from Quantum Spacetime"* focusing on the phenomenology of mass generation
and deriving the electro-weak quantum numbers of the graviform as a Majorana bispinor.
On Friday August 24th, revised
manuscripts addressing critical peer criticism by
** Roman Buniy**
(
**Institute for Quantum Studies** at Chapman University)
were submitted to the
**
Physical Review D
**;
however, due to the novel algebraic setup (mostly ring theory),
on September 2nd the editor communicated that (the papers)
"would be more suitable for a more mathematically oriented journal than for Physical Review D."
Subsequently, these were submitted to
**the Journal of Mathematical Physics**
on September 5th, 2018.

**Atonement: **
I am a man driven to search for Truth through mathematics.
In my humble opinion,
ring theory may be the most suitable toolset to understand spacetime as a "simple substance" for a thoroughly organic theory of everything.
However, I am not so seduced by the beauty of mathematics as to loose sight of the truth in physics.
Still, I reckon that the dual nature of spacetime as belabor in my research program is very real indeed.
Mathematically, this duality follows from a deep algebraic fact developed in the first Appendix of my fundamental paper.
From a physical perspective,
it is obvious that spacetime is not a Lie algebra;
however, the exterior product of two copies of the cotangent space does takes its values on **a** Lie algebra.
The duality of spacetime is nothing more than the institution of the two algebras associated with the vector and spinor representations of the Lorentz group
on such a product.
Furthermore,
causal structure is instilled upon the abstract space by the inclusion of singular geometric points thus leading to a * local* foliation of the space.
This notion of spacetime is thus causal and spin * at* SGP's.
This is the physical content of *quantum ring theory* as I am formulating it..

At last, I wrote a third paper
and deposited it on the arXiv on
November 28th, 2018.
In order to resolve peer criticism that I seem to be using new words to describe old mathematics;
I argued that I had to develop new mathematics--namely, **calculus on algebraically augmented manifolds**--to accurately describe new physics!
This paper was given an "on hold" status for a week and
I was given notice of its permanent arXiv ID **1812.01985** and
**worldwide day view** on December 5th, 2018.
Submission to
**Advances in Theoretical and Mathematical Physics**
followed.
For reference, I include the "Preface" to this third paper below.

**
**On the Vacua of General Relativity in the Backdrop of the Higgs VEV

** Preface: **

*
The notions discussed in this paper are sufficiently foreign to the physics community that I thought it proper to begin by addressing the standard premises of a modern paper on quantum gravity while framing our work within that construct. Quantum field theory on flat spacetime contains particles and fields in a unified scheme where the spacetime is fixed and non-dynamical. Our notion of “algebraically augmented manifold” has fermion content but these fields emerge geometrically as an intrinsic part of the manifold.
A paper on GR usually starts by postulating that one has a topological, smooth, differentiable manifold. Our flavor of algebraic manifold is certainly differentiable and it can be made smooth by providing compact support to the emergent spinor content. However, given that the local charts of a topological manifold are trivially modeled on Euclidean space, our augmented manifold is definitely not topological! The construction is entirely differential so we will only talk at the level of tangent spaces and Lie algebras. Our thesis sustains that the tangent space to curved spacetime has a dual character; roughly speaking, corresponding to the spinor and vector representation of the Lorentz algebra[1]. Such a tangent space must be modeled either on Minkowski space R*^{1,3} or on Clifford space Cl^{1,3}.
In the language of fiber bundles, the world space is the base manifold and when the tangent space is modeled on Clifford space, a Dirac operator emerges out of the vacuum to compensate for Clifford charts that require a partition of unity with appropriately augmented algebraic structure. In this case, the world spacetime constitutes a hybrid space: part Clifford, part Minkowski spacetime. Geometrically, these statements translate into a 4D volume form with a dual character: One corresponding to the usual vacuum of GR and another with matter content in the form of Majorana bi-spinors[2]. This is by far our boldest claim. The core of this paper, §5, gives credence to the emergence of a Dirac operator as an geometrically intrinsic structure by formally developing calculus on algebraically augmented manifolds. This is bound to be a controversial issue so the reader in encouraged to trek through that section with prudence.

* This page was last updated on December 5th, 2018.
*